Between andthe population of north China grew by 58 percent, while it doubled or tripled in the south. In Xuanzong traveled to sacred Mount Tai to perform the Confucian state rites of feng and shan, and during his reign he received Indian esoteric Buddhists at court and helped to establish a small esoteric Buddhist institution in China.
Humans should respect those who are superior to them. Wuzong's antiforeign decrees also effectively eradicated Zoroastrianism, Nestorian Christianity, and Manichaeism from China in an attempt to address the threat that the Uighurs and Tibetans posed from the northwest and west.
Ancestors and heritage is important, but not worshiped. Han Yu thought that Buddhism threatened the Confucian administration of Chinese society by inciting people to publicly worship the Buddha bone.
On the borders of Song territory, non-Chinese states threatened the Confucian world order, and the gentry literati wenren produced by the examination system responded in two ways: the "learning of culture" and neo-Confucianism.
Wu Zhao employed an open examination system for officials in order to counter the power of the ingrained aristocratic families who were hostile to her.
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Neo-Confucians contended that they transmitted the knowledge and foundation for dynastic and social legitimacy zhengtongwhich had been ignored since the time of Mencius.
Those who supported neo-Confucianism, however, vehemently condemned the renunciant lifestyle and popular appeal of Buddhism. Hindus acknowledge the existence of both male and female gods, but they believe that the ultimate divine energy exists beyond these descriptions and categories.