# Fractal antenna thesis

These regions support vibrations whose amplitude is much larger than the vibrations spread over the major portion of the membrane surface. In fact, most of the well-known fractal geometries have been named after the mathematicians who proposed them. Since then, a large amount of research has been carried out in this direction.

This concept has not only provided insight into the macroscopic and microscopic behavior of fractal geometries but also made possible the applications of fractal geometries where this behavior may be used to achieve a specific result. The use of fractals in antenna design improves several characteristics. The application of fractal geometry in antenna design resolve the above mentioned problems.

## Application of fractal antenna

The result is that sound waves only resonate in select small areas of a fractal drum's surface. The generation of deterministic fractals can be explained in two ways: Iterative Function Systems IFS , the mathematical definition of fractal generation. As the name indicates, the basic shape for this fractal is a triangle. A study of High-directivity Fractal Antennas 10 Both methods of generation are now described briefly. It covers basic concepts regarding fractals, a brief description of the history of fractals in antenna designing and the desirable characteristics of different fractal geometries as antennas. Random fractals can also be explained in these two ways, the only difference being the introduction of probability in choosing one of the multiple rules, to complete an iteration. An affine transformation is a transformation that preserves lines and parallelism, i. Thus by selecting a suitable number and location of the lenses and the reduction factors, we can generate any fractal object. Each side replaced with the generator. All the presented antenna structures are fabricated on different substrates FR4 and Duroid for different dielectric constants as well as thicknesses. These regions support vibrations whose amplitude is much larger than the vibrations spread over the major portion of the membrane surface. This is where fractal membranes differ from Euclidean membranes in resonant behavior. Deterministic Fractals, which follow a certain set of mathematical rules for their creation in a preset, deterministic manner. Furthermore, antennas achieve wideband phenomena due to multiple resonances offered by the fractals.

For a true fractal, however, this process will have to be repeated indefinitely. The aim of the book is to provide an elementary introduction to fractal geometry and chaotic dynamics.

## Fractal antenna ppt seminar report

The use of fractals in antenna design improves several characteristics. What was started as a simple hobby in the late 80's soon opened up a whole new dimension of research in the field of antenna engineering. Suppose an object is made up of N-copies of the whole object, each scaled down by a factor r, then the fractal dimension D is defined as: A study of High-directivity Fractal Antennas 9 2. During this work, two books were consulted for the study of the concepts and theory of the fractal geometry. Then the resonance behavior of the membrane and other physical properties are studied. Each iteration involves modification of the sides of every triangle formed in the previous iteration as described before. It is demonstrated numerically and experimentally that the proposed antenna structures are suitable candidates for UWB applications. Through experimentation, the benefits offered by fractal antennas have been recognized as: Miniaturization: smaller physical size,. The nature of fractal geometries had caught the attention of Cohen, a prominent antenna researcher, who took up this study primarily as a pastime, due to his fascination with these interesting and beautiful geometries. However, most simple affine transformations are combinations of scalings and translations only. Random fractals are generated as a result of random selection of one out of multiple rules in a rule-set. Different basic geometries of microstrip antennas have been discussed in detail. Design of a wideband antenna is very challenging as compared to narrowband antennas.

Physicists have studied fractals as standalone objects as well as the application of fractal theory to different problems encountered in physics.

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