Migration of child labour

In the most general household economics framework, parents care about their own consumption and that of their children and decide to send their children to work if the household needs the additional income that working children can provide in economic terms, the household cannot afford to have its children consume leisure by not working.

Only recently has the focus shifted from the study of the economic consequences of immigration for receiving countries to the important role of emigration in the economic growth and development of origin countries. Cons Migration of some family members withdraws human capital and labor from the sending household, a loss that may be compensated for by increasing child labor in the home and in the labor market.

It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about. Because children typically supply unskilled labor and child labor is most common in countries abundant in unskilled workers, the degree to which emigration directly affects the wages of children depends on the relative skill mix of emigrants compared with stayers [13].

Accordingly, the forgone labor supply and care due to emigration may increase the employment of children in the household or in the labor market. Emigrants, especially those migrating from poor to rich countries, enjoy large income gains, and family members at home often share in these gains through remittances.

migrant child labour in india

A seminal model which examined the relationship between child labor and poverty showed that when wages are high, parents are able to keep their children in school and out of the labor market; but when wages are low and families are poor, parents send their children to work, thereby generating a vicious circle of underinvestment in education, a low-skilled labor force, and child labor [8].

Several policy implications arise from studying these effects. Relevant links.

Child labour statistics

The author declares to have observed these principles. If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. Empirical evidence on the labor market impact of emigration on adults and children in the origin country There is a growing literature on the labor market impact of emigration on non-migrant workers in migrant-sending countries [4]. Though migration can be a positive experience for children and can provide them with a better life, increased opportunities and an escape from immediate threats such as forced marriage, conflict and natural disaster, child migrants can face serious challenges while migrating. Depending on the skill composition of migrants and on the responsiveness of the adult labor supply to wage changes, higher local wages may increase the incentives for children to work. Therefore, if emigrants are relatively low-skilled, their departure will increase the wages of unskilled workers, including adults parents and children, thereby altering the incidence of child labor through either the income or the substitution effect described above. This conflicting evidence points to the importance of contextualizing migration studies and jointly examining the micro-level and aggregate-level economic effects of international labor mobility. Cons Migration of some family members withdraws human capital and labor from the sending household, a loss that may be compensated for by increasing child labor in the home and in the labor market. This includes an estimated million international migrants and an estimated million internal migrants. Author's main message International labor mobility affects both family members left behind and workers in migrant-sending countries.

Therefore, if emigrants are relatively low-skilled, their departure will increase the wages of unskilled workers, including adults parents and children, thereby altering the incidence of child labor through either the income or the substitution effect described above.

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Migration and child labour (IPEC)