Understanding cartography and the three ways in which maps are made

History of cartography

Due to the paucity of information and the immense difficulty of surveying during the period, mapmakers frequently plagiarized material without giving credit to the original cartographer. In the later years of his life, Mercator resolved to create his Atlas, a book filled with many maps of different regions of the world, as well as a chronological history of the world from the Earth's creation by God until Showing several variables allows comparison, which adds to the meaningfulness of the map. Use of map projections evolved, with the double hemisphere being very common and Mercator's prestigious navigational projection gradually making more appearances. The Enlightenment[ edit ] Maps of the Enlightenment period practically universally used copper plate intaglio, having abandoned the fragile, coarse woodcut technology. Proportional symbols change size according to phenomenon's magnitude, making them appropriate for representing statistics. Printing technology[ edit ] There were two main printmaking technologies in the Renaissance: woodcut and copper-plate intaglio , referring to the medium used to transfer the image onto paper. There are arguments that color started as a way to indicate information on the map, with aesthetics coming second. A map might use red and green symbols to show the location of maple and pine trees. One of the last wood-engraved maps, done in the style of copper-plate engraving. Today, the art of map making is quite a sophisticated science employing methods from cartography, engineering, computer science, mathematics, and psychology.

Note what happens to the amount of area represented on the maps when the scale is changed. The intersection of latitude and longitude lines, called coordinatesidentify the exact location of a place. Map makers responded with navigation charts, which depicted coast lines, islands, rivers, harbors, and features of sailing interest.

On small-scale maps, the grid is often made up of latitude and longitude lines. A compass rose or north arrow provides orientation.

scope of cartography

Maker, date, and place of publication are unknown. The ancient Greeks are usually considered the founders of scientific cartography.

Not surprisingly, wartime propaganda is a common form of persuasive cartography.

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Mapping Through the Ages: The History of Cartography ~ GIS Lounge